• Health Economics
  • Systematic Literature Review
  • Meta-analysis
  • Medical Writing
  • Data and Dashboards

Health Economic Modeling and Analysis

DEVOTE Model of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes cost-utility model schematic (Pollock et al. 2019).

Covalence has a wealth of health economic modeling expertise, spanning numerous therapy areas, modeling objectives, model structures, and technology platforms.

Furthermore, in the reimbursement context, Covalence has consistently delivered models that have resulted in successful reimbursement of the health technology of interest, including models that have formed the basis of submissions to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH).

Systematic Literature Review

Sourcerer, Covalence's in-house, custom-built platform for literature screening.

The Covalence team has performed dozens of systematic literature reviews, including reviews that have formed the basis of widely-cited peer-reviewed manuscripts and reimbursement submissions.

Since systematic literature reviews often form the bedrock of evidence synthesis efforts such as network meta-analyses and evidence generation efforts such as cost-utility modeling, Covalence takes the process very seriously. So seriously, in fact, that we've developed our own in-house software for conducting systematic literature reviews: Sourcerer. Sourcerer allows Covalence to rapidly screen large volumes of literature and provide bibliographies and literature review outputs in a consistent format.


Pollock et al. network meta-analysis.
Pollock RF, et al. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2021;21(3):341-349.

Covalence has extensive experience running meta-analyses, including everything from pooling of data from multiple trials of the same interventions, through indirect treatment comparisons, to complex network meta-analyses.

In the interests of ensuring that meta-analyses are conducted and reported in accordance with best practice guidelines from ISPOR and NICE, Covalence sponsors the BUGSnet project and works in close collaboration with the University of Waterloo to steward its ongoing development.

Medical Writing

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020;146(10):2575-2587.
Walter et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020;146(10):2575-2587.

Medical writing and value communications are among the core services offered by Covalence. This includes the preparation of systematic literature reviews, global value dossiers and value messages to support reimbursement as well as landscape reviews, manuscripts, posters, slide kits and medical education resources.

Attention to detail and a desire to produce the highest quality deliverables possible is at the cornerstone of everything we do. We work closely with clients to ensure that each project is tailored to meet the specific needs of the market and therapy area in question ensuring that all deliverables are customized and underline the nuances and value of each individual intervention.

The Covalence team have a wealth of experience in medical writing across a broad range of therapy areas with particular expertise in diabetes, oncology and virology. Examples of recent manuscripts published by the Covalence team can be found here.

Data and Dashboard Development

The Covalence Research Secondary Care Medicines Data Dashboard
Covalence's Secondary Care Medicines Data (SCMD) Dashboard.

Data underpins everything we do at Covalence and, whether it's clinical or commercial, it's important to able to quickly gain insights into key signals and messages from the data.

So whether it's one of our off-the-shelf offerings such as our Secondary Care Medicines Data (SCMD) Dashboard (right) or a bespoke dashboard to unearth themes or trends from your own datasets, we are well equipped to deliver elegant and incisive dashboards using an array of modern, secure, and efficient technologies, including Shiny and Angular.

For enquiries pertaining to Covalence's SCMD Dashboard, please contact

About Us

Richard Pollock MA MSciHealth Economist, UK

Cartoon image of Richard Pollock

Richard is a Health Economist and Director at Covalence.

Having graduated with a first-class MSci in Natural Sciences from the University of Cambridge in 2007, he has since worked as a health economist for over 15 years. He has developed models, formulated analysis plans, and managed health technology assessment submissions that have contributed to successful reimbursement decisions at the SMC, NICE, AMCP and CADTH, and has published over 70 peer-reviewed publications and dozens of congress and conference presentations.

Johannes Pöhlmann BA MSc MPHHealth Economist, Germany

Cartoon image of Johannes Pöhlmann

Johannes is a Health Economist at Covalence.

Johannes graduated with a BA in Political Science and Economics from the University of Munich in 2013. He went on to complete an MSc in Demography & Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 2015 and an MPH from the University of Munich in 2016. He has since worked on health economic evaluations of public health interventions and health technology assessments, including for biosimilar infliximab in Switzerland, at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland) and on autonomic dysfunction in heart failure at the University of Mainz (Germany).

Jayne Smith-Palmer DPhilSenior Consultant, Switzerland

Cartoon image of Jayne Smith-Palmer

Jayne is a Senior Consultant at Covalence, specialising in medical writing, evidence synthesis, and value communication.

Jayne graduated with a BSc in Biology from the University of St Andrews in 2002. She went on to complete a DPhil in biophysics at Oxford University in collaboration with the National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. Since then, she has gained over 15 years of experience in medical writing and value communications, and has coauthored over 30 publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

Waqas Ahmed MSc MPharmData Scientist, UK

Cartoon image of Waqas Ahmed

Waqas is a Data Scientist at Covalence.

Waqas graduated with a first-class MPharm from University College London in 2017 and went on to obtain a distinction in his MSc in Health Economics at the University of York in 2020. He subsequently joined PHMR Ltd in London as a health economist where he worked on several patient-reported outcomes projects. Waqas joined Covalence as a Data Scientist in 2022 where he continues to work on a variety of health economic modeling, evidence synthesis and data visualisation projects across a wide range of therapy areas.

Neesha Nanu BSc MScSenior Evidence Synthesis Consultant, UK

Cartoon image of Neesha Nanu

Neesha is a Senior Evidence Synthesis Consultant at Covalence.

Neesha graduated with a BSc in Biomedical Science from the University of Kent in 2015 and went on to complete an MSc in epidemiology at Imperial College London. She subsequently worked as a Research Assistant at Imperial where she worked on a continuously-updated systematic literature review funded by the World Cancer Research Fund International on the role of diet, nutritional status, anthropometric characteristics and physical activity in cancer prevention and prognosis. Neesha joined Covalence in 2022 where she continues to work on epidemiological research and novel evidence synthesis projects.

Silvia Rabar PhDSenior Consultant, UK

Cartoon image of Silvia Rabar

Silvia is a Senior Consultant at Covalence, specialising in evidence review and synthesis.

Silvia obtained a PhD in chemistry in 2004 from the University of Venice, Italy, in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, UK. She has since held a variety of roles in academia and consultancy, including 9 years working in NICE Clinical Guideline development. Silvia joined Covalence in 2023 where she works on a variety of health evidence review synthesis and value communication projects across a broad range of disease areas.

Tray Brown BSc MScPrincipal, Czech Republic

Cartoon image of Tray Brown

Tray is a Principal at Covalence.

Tray previously held senior leadership and technical modelling roles in consulting and academia, and joined Covalence as Principal in 2024. Prior to joining Covalence, Tray was Director of Health Economics at HEOR Ltd where he provided strategic consulting and led the development of models in a wide range of disease areas including cardiovascular, oncology, infectious diseases and autoimmune indications. His experience includes building global models for later country-specific adaptations as well as models for HTA submissions to NICE, interpreting both real-world and clinical trial data to produce complex cost-effectiveness models and conducting value of information analyses. Tray has also developed and advised on early-stage models for strategic planning and budget impact for both global and country-specific settings, including in the US and UK.



  • Alshannaq H, Pollock RF, Joubert M, Ahmed W, Norman GJ, Lynch PM, Roze S. Cost-utility of real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in France. J Comp Eff Res. 2024;13(3):e230174.
  • Bjorner JB, Kennedy N, Lindgren S, Pollock RF. Hypophosphatemia attenuates improvements in vitality after intravenous iron treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Qual Life Res. 2024. In press.
  • Cardell L, Sterner T, Ahmed W, Slættanes AK, Svärd M, Pollock RF. Modelling the impact of sublingual immunotherapy versus subcutaneous immunotherapy on patient travel time and CO2 emissions in Sweden. Sci Rep. 2024;14(1):1575.
  • Cardell L, Sterner T, Ahmed W, Slættanes AK, Svärd M, Pollock RF. Modelling the Costs of Sublingual Immunotherapy versus Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Based on Clinical Appointments and Impacts of Patient Travel in Sweden. ClinicoEcon Outcomes Res. 2024. In press.
  • Hadzi Boskovic D, Smith-Palmer J, Pöhlmann J, Pollock RF, Hwang S, Bruhn B. Systematic Literature Review of Studies Reporting Measures of Functional Outcome or Quality of Life in People with Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2024. In press.
  • Iqbal TH, Kennedy N, Dhar A, Ahmed W, Pollock RF. Cost-utility analysis of ferric derisomaltose versus ferric carboxymaltose in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency anemia in England. J Med Econ. 2024;27(1):392—403.
  • Mathieu C, Ahmed W, Gillard P, Cohen O, Vigersky R, de Portu S, Ozdemir Saltik AZ. The health economics of automated insulin delivery systems and the potential use of time in range in diabetes modeling: a narrative review. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2024;26(S3):66—75.
  • Pöhlmann J, Weller M, Marcellusi A, Grabe-Heyne K, Krott-Coi L, Rabar S, Pollock RF. High costs, low quality of life, reduced survival, and room for improving treatment: an analysis of burden and unmet needs in glioma. Front Oncol. 2024. In press.


  • Alshannaq H, Cogswell G, Pollock RF, Ahmed W, Norman GJ, Lynch P, Roze S. Cost-utility of real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose and intermittently-scanned continuous glucose monitoring in people with type 1 diabetes receiving multiple daily insulin injections in Denmark. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023;25(9):2704—2713.
  • Alshannaq H, Isitt JJ, Pollock RF, Norman GJ, Cogswell G, Lynch PM, Roze S. Cost-utility of real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in Canada. J Comp Eff Res. 2023;12(10):e230075.
  • Fukumoto S, Murata T, Osuga Y, Pollock RF. Incidence of hypophosphatemia after administration of intravenous iron: a matching-adjusted indirect comparison of data from Japanese randomized controlled trials. Adv Ther. 2023;40(11):4877—4888.
  • Grabe-Heyne K, Henne C, Mariappan P, Geiges G, Pöhlmann J, Pollock RF. Intermediate and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: an overview of epidemiology, burden, and unmet needs. Front Oncol. 2023:13:1170124.
  • Grabe-Heyne K, Henne C, Odeyemi I, Pöhlmann J, Ahmed W, Pollock RF. Evaluating the cost-utility of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin versus radical cystectomy in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the UK. J Med Econ. 2023;26(1):411—421.
  • Hu S, Wu D, Wu J, Zhang Y, Bøgelund M, Pöhlmann J, Pollock RF. Disutilities associated with intravenous iron infusions: results from a time trade-off survey and diminishing marginal utility model for treatment attributes in China. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2023;14:253-267.
  • Jendle J, Buompensiere MI, Ozdemir Saltik AZ, de Portu S, Smith-Palmer J, Pollock RF, Cohen O. A European cost-utility analysis of the MiniMed™ 780G advanced hybrid closed-loop system versus intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring with multiple daily insulin injections in people living with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2023;25(12):864—876.
  • Kennedy NA, Achebe MM, Biggar P,Pöhlmann J, Pollock RF. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the incidence of serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions after administration of ferric derisomaltose or ferric carboxymaltose. Int J Clin Pharm. 2023;45(3):604—612
  • Pollock RF, Shergill S, Carion PL, von Oppen N, Agirrezabal I, Brennan VK. Advances in delivery of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT): economic and logistical effects of same-stay work-up and procedure in the treatment of unresectable liver tumors in England. Adv Ther. 2023;40(1):294—309.
  • Pollock RF, Slættanes AK, Brandi H, Grand TS. A Cost-utility Analysis of SQ® Tree SLIT-tablet versus placebo in the treatment of birch pollen allergic rhinitis from a Swedish societal perspective. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2023;15:69—86.
  • Valentine WJ, Hoog M, Mody R, Belger M, Pollock RF. Long-term cost-effectiveness analysis of tirzepatide versus semaglutide 1.0 mg for the management of type 2 diabetes in the US. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023. 25(5):1292—1300.


  • Hu S, Liu L, Pollock RF, Pöhlmann J, Wu D, Zhang Y. Intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in China: a patient-level simulation model and cost-utility analysis comparing ferric derisomaltose with iron sucrose. J Med Econ. 2022;25(1):561-570.
  • Pöhlmann J, Bergenheim K, Sanchez J-JG, Rao N, Briggs A, Pollock RF. Modeling chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic literature review of models, data sources, and derivation cohorts. Diabetes Ther. 2022;13(4):651-677.
  • Pollock RF, Dhar A, Johnson M. Economic analysis of intravenous iron in patients with iron deficiency anemia due to inflammatory bowel disease: considerations for clinicians [letter]. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2022;14:163-165.
  • Pollock RF, Kalra PA, Kalra PR, Ahmed FZ. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and indirect comparison of blindly adjudicated cardiovascular event incidence with ferric derisomaltose, ferric carboxymaltose, and iron sucrose. Adv Ther. 2022;39(10):4678-4691.
  • Pollock RF, Norrbacka K, Boye KS, Osumili B, Valentine WJ. The PRIME type 2 diabetes model: a novel, patient-level model for estimating long-term clinical and cost outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Econ. 2022;25(1):393-402.
  • Rønborg S, Grand TS, Brandi H, Pollock RF. ITULAZAX® versus Alutard SQ® in the treatment of allergic rhinitis induced by pollen from the birch homologous group: a cost-minimization modeling analysis from the Danish societal perspective. Clin Transl Allergy. 2022;12(11):e12196.


  • Felizzi F, Paracha N, Pöhlmann J, Ray J. Mixture cure models in oncology: a tutorial and practical guidance. Pharmacoecon Open. 2021;5(2):143–155.
  • Pollock RF, Brennan VK, Shergill S, Colaone F. A systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of first-line treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma based on data from randomized controlled trials. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2021;21(3):341–349.
  • Pollock RF, Colaone F, Shergill S, Brennan VK, Agirrezabal I. Effects of trial population selection on quality of life and healthcare decision-making: a systematic review and example in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with radioembolization. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2021;13:835–841.
  • Pollock RF, Muduma G. An economic analysis of ferric derisomaltose versus ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2021;13:9–18.


  • Brennan VK, Colaone F, Shergill S, Pollock RF. A cost-utility analysis of SIR-Spheres Y-90 resin microspheres versus best supportive care in the treatment of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to chemotherapy in the UK. J Med Econ. 2020;23(12):1588-1597.
  • Igarashi A, Hunt B, Wilkinson L, Langer J, Pollock RF. Lower drug cost of successfully treating patients with type 2 diabetes to targets with once-weekly semaglutide versus once-weekly dulaglutide in Japan: a short-term cost-effectiveness analysis. Adv Ther. 2020;37(10):4446-4457.
  • Loughnane F, Muduma G, Pollock RF. Development of a resource impact model for clinics treating pre-operative iron deficiency anemia in Ireland. Adv Ther. 2020;37(3):1218-1232.
  • Pollock RF, Biggar P. Indirect methods of comparison of the safety of ferric derisomaltose, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Expert Rev Hematol. 2020;13(2):187-195.
  • Pollock RF, Brennan VK, Peters R, Paprottka PM. Association between objective response rate and overall survival in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with radioembolization: a systematic literature review and regression analysis. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2020;20(11):997-1009.
  • Pollock RF, Colaone F, Guardiola L, Shergill S, Brennan VK. A cost analysis of SIR-Spheres yttrium-90 resin microspheres versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in France, Italy, Spain and the UK. J Med Econ. 2020;23(6):593-602.
  • Pollock RF, Muduma G. A patient-level cost-effectiveness analysis of iron isomaltoside versus ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in the United Kingdom. J Med Econ. 2020;23(7):751-759.
  • Smith-Palmer J, Cerri K, Sbarigia U, Chan EKH, Pollock RF, Valentine WJ, Bonroy K. Impact of stigma on people living with chronic hepatitis B. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2020;11:95-107.
  • Walter T, Hawkins NS, Pollock RF, Colaone F, Shergill S, Ross PJ. Systematic review and network meta-analyses of third-line treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020;146(10):2575-2587.
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